1.       A technique used to estimate cost or duration by applying an average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates.

2.       A group creativity technique that allows large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.

3.       A person or group who provides resources and support for the project, program, or portfolio and is accountable for enabling success.

4.       An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives.


1.       Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.

2.       A risk that arises as a direct result of implementing a risk response.

3.       Any document or communication that defines the initial intentions of a project. This can take the form of a contract, memorandum of understanding (MOU), letters of agreement, verbal agreements, email, etc.

4.       A technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources.



1.       Three-Point Estimate

2.       Affinity Diagram

3.       Sponsor

4.       Risk


1.       Initiating process group

2.       Secondary Risk

3.       Agreements

4.       Crashing